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The Enigmatic Eosinophil. Health inequalities and the health of the poor: what do we know? What can we do? Davidson R. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark. Social inequalities in health: are there gender differences?

Social Inequality in Brazil

Income-related health inequality in Canada. Karin H. Humphries , Eddy van Doorslaer. Inequalities in self-rated health: explanations from different stages of life Chris Power , Sharon Matthews , Orly Manor. Given the questionable circumstances of the deposition of Roussef in and the obstruction of Lula in , this election runs the risk of leaving dreadful traces. When in power the PT put in a credible performance. Thanks to the rise in minimum wage and the new system of family allowances Bolsa Familia , economic growth was accompanied by an unexpected fall in poverty.

The PT also set up schemes for preferential access to the universities for the working classes and the black and mixed populations. When the progressive forces have succeeded in reducing inequalities in the 20 th century, it is because they fought for an ambitious, egalitarian agenda based on political reforms while at the same time implementing fiscal and social reforms.

Brazil: extreme inequality in numbers

In the United States the constitution had to be amended to create a federal income and inheritance tax, which became the most progressive of its kind in history and enabled the financing of the New Deal. In the United Kingdom, the veto of the House of Lords had to be ended, and in France that of the Senate, failing which the social reforms in would never have seen the light of day. Today, the progressive forces refuse any sort of ambitious discussion on the democratisation of American, European or Brazilian institutions.

Recent land conflicts have also consolidated organized crime, including groups of outlaws, gangs, and squads infesting the Northeast, Middle-West, and Amazon. The victms are nearly always rural workers and Indians or professionals representing or defending them, such as lawyers, teachers, and priests. We are faced with new forms of gangsterism both in the country and the city. In the countryside, traditional violent strategies crimes of honor, family feuds, blood vendettas have taken second stage to current forms of violence caused by land occupation by land-concentrating interests representing big business.

In so doing, it has aggravated the concentration of both land tenure and public resources devoted to farming and livestock-raising" Almeida, The result of this new kind of latifundium system is still expressed by the traditional forms of labor exploitation, but it also disrupts the small-farmer economy and further aggravates the expulsion of huge contingents of rural workers from the land they cultivate.

Added to this situation ate the conflicts occurring in the gold-prospecting areas. One of the results of land conflicts is the exodus of rural workers to the metropolitan regions, aggravating urban problems, leading to mobility process with a problematic demographical configuration.

In , there were 18, families located in 99 camps in the South of Brazil Almeida, According to estimates by the Ministry of Labor quoted by Almeida , there were five million rural workers in in conflictive situations caused by lack of observance of labor legislation and illegal use of measures to immobilize the labor force.

As we can conclude, violence in the rural areas of Brazil still has a structural contour, taking workers' lives, impeding the traditional cultivation of staple crops and paving the way for the institutionalization of organized rural banditry. While this violence is different in some ways from that in big cities, it is inspired by the same logic, a land-concentrating, elitist logic. Studies by Grzybowski and Almeida are restricted to violence due to land tenure motives, since it is strongest expression of domination by and in favor of inequality in the rural areas of Brazil.

However, one should add to all of this the problems in border areas, such as the drug traffic and smuggling of weapons, merchandise, precious gems, and cars that are responsible for an atmosphere of violence resulting in murders.

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Furthermore, real working conditions in the country are responsible for an unmeasurable amount of work accidents and pesticide poisonings we say unmeasurable in the sense that such accidents are not notified officials, although they are observed empirically. Like violence in the country, violence in the big has also changed its profile, having become a major cause of mortality.

Statistics show that in the metropolitan regions, external causes are particularly significant among youth: In the age bracket, external causes account for Work "accidents" are undernotified, and the limited knowledge we have of then is evidence of the prevaiting neglect and exploitation in work relations, notification, and programs for prevention rehabilitation. What is deeply disturbing today, in addition to all the other problems, is the significantly growing trend towards homicides with some specific characteristics in the statistics on mortality. The first such characteristic is the excessively high male mortality rate, at a ratio of four men to one woman.

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The second characteristic is the risk group most vulnerable to homicides: young people between 15 and 29 years of age the productive age, the future of our country! While they do not encompass the whole meaning of the process denounced by the process denounced by the data, it is important to call attention to some manifestations of urban violence, which we sum up here under four points: 1.

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On the one hand we see a situation of economic squeeze for the poor with almost no legal way out, and on the other, for the better-off, an ideology of getting the upper hand at every opportunity. This has helped shrink the limits on many people's scruples in relation to property, be it public or private. Methods of appropriation are highly differentiated. Such behavior, which can hardly be categorized as delinquency thanks to its covert, subreptitious character , distinguishes in everyday life the limits between inequality and legality.

The second point is reflected in the current institution of Street Boys and Girls, a shocking paradigmatic situation stemming from the effects of economic and social violence and its articulation with delinquency. The process of children being expelled from the family nucleus onto the street must be understood first but not only as a movement of the poor for survival.

Condemned to being what society has made of them, these children and adolescents, victims of an exclusive economic system, also end up as victims of extermination, fights between street "gangs", and their own breaches of the law. Since , the hideous crime of extermination has taken the lives of three children a day in Brazil: poor, Black, and young, they swell the statistics on homicide in the major metropolitan regions.

The murder of children is now perhaps the biggest challenge to the quality of development in Brazil. The third point mainly reflects a change in the forms of traditional violence. The drug traffic is an international network, sweeping the country from North to South, permeating both city and country, including powerful groups that ramify within both legal and illegal institutions and have as the tip of their iceberg the marijuana pushers located in slums and outlying urban areas. While this articulated, lucrative network permeates powerful sectors hiding in venerable institutions, it does its greatest damage among youth, particularly among lower-income children and adolescents, who are easily enticed by the immediate advantages they are offered.

In the groups that are formed, the idea of easy money, the myth of the "bandit hero", and enchantment with the handling of guns all go together with their disenchantment over poverty, scarcity, and lack of opportunities. At an age where they are attracted by the forbidden, by adventure, and denial of tradition as part of intrapsychic development, many of these young people end up arrested or swelling the homicide statistics as burglars, kidnappers, protagonists in fights, and "burned files".

According to Zaluar a , a "bandit" rarely lives to be 25 years old. Organized crime today does not only deal in illicit drugs; it is organized to smuggle weapons and stolen cars and hold kidnappings and bank robberies and other kinds of activities, including legal and political one.

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In the fourth place, urban reality now raises the problem of corruption in the public sphere with the complicity of the private sector. While according to philosophers the issue of corruption is implicit to power, it frightens us today because of the way it has reached such venerable institutions as the court system, the legislature, and political forces and institutions of a social nature. Perhaps in the economic crisis in which we are living, the so-called "white-collar crimes" lay bare our ethical and moral crisis more than anything else, our loss of social cohesion, the crumbling of our traditional values.

Scholars have shown over the course of history that violence is one of the forms of social expression. It should be thought of like this when we seek ways to escape from its grip. Violence is never a solution to violence, either in the country or the city. The principles for overcoming violence are to be found in the search for social and human values built by the community, above all in the search for basic individual and group rights in overcoming the circle of poverty.

History therefore shows that it is possible to move in a positive evolution in terms of relationships between human beings themselves and with nature , but that it is equally possible to slip back even further. What is the limit? A concept created by a German naturalist in the late 19th century, "Ecology" in etymological terms means "the science of household management". Considering the very planet we inhabit as our home, ecology, through the conservationist movements, has worked for the preservation and equilibrium of the environment.

Progress as humanity has achieved it and the ideology of domination of nature at may cost have come to threaten life on the planet and the survival of humankind. However, the worldwide outcry over the threat to the environment has been bolstered by voices placing at the center of the ecological debate the degradation of human beings, whether by the total materialization and massification of their lives or the degeneration of social relations and subjectivity. We have come to the certainty that the biggest challenge of our time is the ethical and political articulation between social relations, environment, and subjectivity with new foundations.

In contemporary Brazilian reality, the inequalities that have become structural violence and that are materializing in delinquency are perhaps the most striking real and symbolic fact for our ecological conscience.

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As Ignacy Sachs reminds us as he defends the concept of "ecodevelopment", we are on the high seas in a slave ship. On the upper deck there are parties, masked balls, and banquets, while in the hold the slaves scream out, rebel, and die, threatening the wealth of the powerful. Despite the orchestra's harmonious chords, the rich cannot forget that we are all in the same boat and that we will pull into the same port, guided by them. Otherwise, we will all shipwreck.

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  6. Therefore, an ecosocial approach takes as its point of departure the observation that environment problems are not complementary to but rather in conflictive opposition with inter-human relationships and relationships with nature. Extreme inequalities, structural violence, and environment degradation are intrinsically articulated.

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    However, we cannot agree with the incrimination of the poor as responsible for the destruction of the environment. While it is true that they, too, are predators, we believe that their responsibility is limited to actions they practice in the struggle for survival. Much to the contrary, they are the victims of the metropolization of poverty and the degradation of social relations in the country.

    The heavier social burden for them means creating an increasingly degenerated environment due to increased population density with no compensation in the form of favorable social policies. It is the poor who live in unhealthy housing with no basic sanitation or garbage collection, who drink polluted water, and who die in landslides and floods long before they reach the mean age predicted by the national life expectancy statistics.